• Type

    Comparative study with concurrent controls

  • Outcomes/Outputs

    Research impacts on vegetable intake,Research creates behaviour change relating to vegetable consumption

  • Scale


  • Setting


  • Population targeted

    Children - early years 6m-4yrs

  • Focus

    Vegetable consumption

  • Duration

    Short (<1 year)

  • Funding


  • Total cost



The current study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of flavour–flavour learning as one strategy for increasing vegetable intake in preschool children.


This study tested the hypothesis that adding sweetness via fruit puree to a novel, target vegetable would be more effective than simple repeated exposure in increasing liking and intake of the target.


This study tested the technique of Flavour-flavour learning, which pairs a flavour that is already known and liked with a new flavour (i.e. vegetable) to establish a flavour cue. Repeated pairings of these two flavours are hypothesised to increase liking for the target flavour, even when it is presented on its own. Each child received a minimum of 6 to 8 exposures to a root vegetable puree with added apple puree (flavour–flavour learning) alternating with six to eight exposures to another with nothing added (repeated exposure). Up to 200g of each vegetable puree was provided on three separate days at their usual snack time by preschool staff. A third vegetable acted as control, whereby no exposures were given during the intervention period. Pre- and post-intervention intake measures of the three purees with nothing added were taken to assess change in intake. Follow-up measures took place 1 month and and 6 months post-intervention.

Journal article: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0195666314001810.